Main symptoms of Tuberculosis | First aid for tuberculosis

The main symptoms of Tuberculosis:

  • Manifestations of intoxication (weakness, chills, apathy, increased fatigue, pallor, sweating);
  • Cough, sputum discharge, wheezing, shortness of breath (with pulmonary tuberculosis);
  • Decreased appetite and weight loss;
  • Swollen lymph nodes;
  • Temperature increase to 37-38 degrees, which lasts a long time;
  • Tuberculous granulomas (detected by x-ray examination);
  • Constipation, stool disorders, blood in the feces (with intestinal tuberculosis);
  • Decrease in hemoglobin level.

Main symptoms of Tuberculosis

Features of the course of the disease in pregnant women

All diseases of a pregnant woman constitute a threat to the fetal development of the fetus and affect the condition of the newborn. But, in the case of tuberculosis, intrauterine infection is rare. However, the full treatment of the expectant mother during pregnancy has a beneficial effect on the fetus. If the diagnosis of tuberculosis and its therapy are carried out in a timely manner, the child is born healthy, with a normal weight. At the same time, children born to mothers with advanced forms of tuberculosis and not receiving adequate treatment are born prematurely, with signs of hypoxia and other abnormalities. In case of tuberculosis during pregnancy, treatment will bring the fetus more benefits than harm.

Features of the disease in children

Tuberculosis in children begins with weakness, increased fatigue and irritability. The child stops growing and gaining weight, begins to lag behind classmates in school. At the same time, there is a slight increase in temperature (up to 37.5), lymph nodes increase. In such children, tuberculosis tests give a positive answer. All these are signs of tuberculosis intoxication and require treatment. The sooner parents pay attention to a change in the behavior and well-being of the child, the higher the chance of remission.

Complications

Even after a quality and timely treatment, tuberculosis leaves its marks in the patient’s body. But in the absence of treatment, such consequences of tuberculosis develop as:

Pulmonary hemorrhage and sputum blood

  • Spontaneous accumulation of gases or air in the pleural cavity
  • Pulmonary heart failure
  • Pulmonary lobe decline
  • Amyloidosis
  • Fistulas in the affected organ, etc.

With proper treatment, residual changes in the organs of fibrous, fibro-focal, bullous-dystrophic, cicatricial nature develop, calcifications, pleuropneumosclerosis and cirrhosis form.

First aid for tuberculosis

First aid for pulmonary tuberculosis is aimed at relieving cough. For this patient, it is necessary to lay so that the upper body is raised at an angle and better sputum discharge is ensured.

Pathology diagnostics

Diagnosis of tuberculosis begins with a consultation with a physician , referral to sputum bacteriosis.

For a more detailed examination, the patient will need:

  • Pulmonologist consultation ;
  • X-ray of the lungs ( fluorography );
  • computed tomography .

To determine the type of pathogen, PCR diagnostics of the biomaterial is prescribed .

Tuberculosis treatment

The treatment of tuberculosis in all its forms is a long process, which requires patience, compliance with all the doctor’s recommendations. To achieve the greatest effectiveness, an integrated approach to treatment is practiced. Since Koch’s sticks are immune to the action of antibiotics, the following are prescribed for the treatment of tuberculosis:

  • Anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy;
  • Intensive, high-quality nutrition for weight gain and enrichment of the body with vitamins and minerals;
  • Detoxification of the body (if patients take alcoholic or narcotic substances);
  • Sanatorium-resort procedures in specialized institutions.

The surgical method for treating tuberculosis remains relevant, in which the surgeon can remove the affected lung or its lobe, drain the caverns, apply artificial pneumothorax, and much more according to indications.

Healing Control

It is completely impossible to cure tuberculosis. But it is possible to reduce the concentration of Koch’s bacillus in the body, reduce the foci of the pathological process and transfer the patient to a state of remission. Unfortunately, the period of remission is limited and the patient, with a certain frequency established by his attending physician, requires anti-tuberculosis therapy.

Disease prevention

Prevention of tuberculosis includes a number of measures:

  • BCG vaccination;
  • annual tests of mantoux (for children);
  • fluorography at least 1 time per year (for adults, depending on the type of activity);
  • rejection of bad habits;
  • healthy eating
  • physical activity and sports;
  • high-quality cleaning of rooms.

Vaccination

A tuberculosis vaccine is given to all children. Babies receive the first dose of the vaccine 3-7 days after birth. BCG revaccination is no longer carried out.

Which doctor treats tuberculosis?

Wondering which doctor is treating tuberculosis? The answer is simple. Therapist and pulmonologist can identify the lesion and determine the patient’s condition. But the TB specialist is engaged in the specialized treatment of tuberculosis.

The basic rules for losing weight

Weight Loss

To change your diet, you must reduce caloric intake moderately , that is to say first fat and quick sugars. It is essential to respect good eating practices ( see “The guide to good eating practices” ) by adding a few simple rules.

  • Do not skip meals , especially breakfast, which must remain generous. Eat a light meal in the evening;
  • Do not eat anything apart from meals. If you are hungry between meals, drink a full glass of water , coffee or tea without sugar. Drink also before the meal and in the middle of the meal;
  • Continue to eat starchy foods with each meal  : pasta, rice, potatoes or bread. They provide a feeling of satiety and provide the energy you need, as well as fiber. On the other hand, everything that accompanies them is to be limited: fatty sauces, butter, cheese, fresh cream, etc. It is therefore necessary to consume these starchy foods alone or with a seasoning without sugar or fat;
Weight Loss
  • Eliminate sugary soft drinks;
  • Remove alcohol and beer. You can continue to drink wine , preferably red, by limiting yourself to one glass per day;
  • Avoid eating out of your home as it is more difficult to control your diet. In restaurants it is sometimes possible, with friends it is more difficult… If you are having a good meal with several people, you must then try to reduce the quantities and above all never use another dish;
  • Choose lean meats and favor poultry, without the skin, fish and shellfish;
  • Beware of hidden fats  : avoid all meats in sauce, fatty meats, gratins rich in milk, butter or cream, gruyère and eggs, fried foods, pastries and pastries, sweets and chocolate, ice cream, cakes aperitifs;
  • Eat vegetables at will and in all their forms: raw, cooked, in soup;
  • Eat two fruits a day, but no more;
  • Preferred cooking
  • Meats: grilled or roasted;
  • Fish: grilled, baked or in the microwave, or in foil;
  • Vegetables: steamed, smothered or microwave; 

Make the seasonings and sauces as low as possible: put a little oil, butter or cream, then use the lemon, yogurt, cube broth and soy sauce, finally season to your taste with aromatic herbs and spices.

How to lose weight permanently?

To lose weight you have to rely on a few solid principles:

  • Give yourself time, at least a month to lose 2 to 3 pounds;
  • Prevent cravings and fatigue;
  • Adhere to the rules set at the start;
  • Avoid  vitamin and mineral deficiencies  ;
  • Do not use drugs or special diet foods   ;
  • Keep maximum eating pleasure.
  • To lose weight, determination above all!

While respecting these nutritional rules, to lose weight it is good to know how to choose the least energetic foods. It is therefore useful to know roughly the nutritional value of some common foods (see ” discover the nutritional value of foods “).

Stay Motivated with your weight loss goal

You still have to be determined and not give in to all temptations. The first week is often difficult but the first kilo lost is encouraging! However, small deviations are allowed provided they are exceptional. It’s up to you to find a balance without falling into obsession with food and frustration. Otherwise, you risk cracking and starting to nibble impulsively, then feeling guilty and going back to depriving yourself, and thus falling into a completely unproductive cycle compared to your weight loss goal!

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