The main symptoms of Tuberculosis:
- Manifestations of intoxication (weakness, chills, apathy, increased fatigue, pallor, sweating);
- Cough, sputum discharge, wheezing, shortness of breath (with pulmonary tuberculosis);
- Decreased appetite and weight loss;
- Swollen lymph nodes;
- Temperature increase to 37-38 degrees, which lasts a long time;
- Tuberculous granulomas (detected by x-ray examination);
- Constipation, stool disorders, blood in the feces (with intestinal tuberculosis);
- Decrease in hemoglobin level.
Features of the course of the disease in pregnant women
All diseases of a pregnant woman constitute a threat to the fetal development of the fetus and affect the condition of the newborn. But, in the case of tuberculosis, intrauterine infection is rare. However, the full treatment of the expectant mother during pregnancy has a beneficial effect on the fetus. If the diagnosis of tuberculosis and its therapy are carried out in a timely manner, the child is born healthy, with a normal weight. At the same time, children born to mothers with advanced forms of tuberculosis and not receiving adequate treatment are born prematurely, with signs of hypoxia and other abnormalities. In case of tuberculosis during pregnancy, treatment will bring the fetus more benefits than harm.
Features of the disease in children
Tuberculosis in children begins with weakness, increased fatigue and irritability. The child stops growing and gaining weight, begins to lag behind classmates in school. At the same time, there is a slight increase in temperature (up to 37.5), lymph nodes increase. In such children, tuberculosis tests give a positive answer. All these are signs of tuberculosis intoxication and require treatment. The sooner parents pay attention to a change in the behavior and well-being of the child, the higher the chance of remission.
Even after a quality and timely treatment, tuberculosis leaves its marks in the patient’s body. But in the absence of treatment, such consequences of tuberculosis develop as:
Pulmonary hemorrhage and sputum blood
- Spontaneous accumulation of gases or air in the pleural cavity
- Pulmonary heart failure
- Pulmonary lobe decline
- Fistulas in the affected organ, etc.
With proper treatment, residual changes in the organs of fibrous, fibro-focal, bullous-dystrophic, cicatricial nature develop, calcifications, pleuropneumosclerosis and cirrhosis form.
First aid for tuberculosis
First aid for pulmonary tuberculosis is aimed at relieving cough. For this patient, it is necessary to lay so that the upper body is raised at an angle and better sputum discharge is ensured.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis begins with a consultation with a physician , referral to sputum bacteriosis.
For a more detailed examination, the patient will need:
- Pulmonologist consultation ;
- X-ray of the lungs ( fluorography );
- computed tomography .
To determine the type of pathogen, PCR diagnostics of the biomaterial is prescribed .
The treatment of tuberculosis in all its forms is a long process, which requires patience, compliance with all the doctor’s recommendations. To achieve the greatest effectiveness, an integrated approach to treatment is practiced. Since Koch’s sticks are immune to the action of antibiotics, the following are prescribed for the treatment of tuberculosis:
- Anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy;
- Intensive, high-quality nutrition for weight gain and enrichment of the body with vitamins and minerals;
- Detoxification of the body (if patients take alcoholic or narcotic substances);
- Sanatorium-resort procedures in specialized institutions.
The surgical method for treating tuberculosis remains relevant, in which the surgeon can remove the affected lung or its lobe, drain the caverns, apply artificial pneumothorax, and much more according to indications.
It is completely impossible to cure tuberculosis. But it is possible to reduce the concentration of Koch’s bacillus in the body, reduce the foci of the pathological process and transfer the patient to a state of remission. Unfortunately, the period of remission is limited and the patient, with a certain frequency established by his attending physician, requires anti-tuberculosis therapy.
Prevention of tuberculosis includes a number of measures:
- BCG vaccination;
- annual tests of mantoux (for children);
- fluorography at least 1 time per year (for adults, depending on the type of activity);
- rejection of bad habits;
- healthy eating
- physical activity and sports;
- high-quality cleaning of rooms.
A tuberculosis vaccine is given to all children. Babies receive the first dose of the vaccine 3-7 days after birth. BCG revaccination is no longer carried out.
Which doctor treats tuberculosis?
Wondering which doctor is treating tuberculosis? The answer is simple. Therapist and pulmonologist can identify the lesion and determine the patient’s condition. But the TB specialist is engaged in the specialized treatment of tuberculosis.